Hydraulic potential in Lake Michigan bottom sediments

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Authors:Cartwright, K.; Hunt, C. S.; Hughes, G. M.; Brower, R. D.
Author Affiliations:Primary:
Ill. State Geol. Surv., Urbana, Ill., United States
Volume Title:Contemporary hydrogeology; the George Burke Maxey memorial volume
Volume Authors:Back, W., editor; Stephenson, D. A.
Source:Contemporary hydrogeology; the George Burke Maxey memorial volume, edited by W. Back and D. A. Stephenson. Journal of Hydrology, 43(1-4), p.67-78. Publisher: Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands. ISSN: 0022-1694
Publication Date:1979
Note:In English
Summary:The magnitude and direction of groundwater flux in the bottom sediments of Lake Michigan were deduced from measurements made during three shipboard cruises between 1973 and 1975. These factors affect the geochemical environment of the sediments and therefore the distribution of trace elements reported to be present. The near-shore, sandy-bottom and fine-grained, soft, deep-lake sediments were investigated; areas of hard till or bedrock were not included in the study. Thirty-three piezometers were placed in near-shore sands in waters 5-15 m deep. The piezometers were placed an average of 3 m into the bottom sediment. Water levels from the piezometers averaged 0.6 cm above the lake level, equivalent to an upward hydraulic gradient of about 0.002 cm/cm. Water samples taken from the piezometers have a distinctly different chemical composition from that of the lake water. The total dissolved mineral content and hardness of the groundwater are about twice those of the lake water. Twenty-two hydraulic gradient measurements were made in the fine-grained soft deep-lake sediments in waters 48-140 m deep by using a differential-pressure transducer dropped into the sediments. These measurements show an upward gradient averaging 0.2 cm/cm. No chemical data were obtained for the groundwater in the deep-lake sediments. The results of this study indicated that the groundwater flux is upward through the bottom sediments into Lake Michigan and that there is a chemical change in the water near the water-sediment contact. (Sims-ISWS)
Subjects:Clastic sediments; Geochemistry; Ground water; Hydraulic conductivity; Hydraulic pressure; Hydrochemistry; Hydrodynamics; Hydrogeology; Hydrology; Lakes; Limnology; Pressure; Sand; Sediment-water interface; Sediments; Surface water; Surveys; Trace elements; Water pressure; Great Lakes; Lake Michigan; North America; Flux; Hydraulic gradient
Coordinates:N414500 N460000 W0844500 W0875000
Record ID:1979038398
Copyright Information:GeoRef, Copyright 2018 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from USGS product, Selected Water Resources Abstracts, Reston, VA, United States
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