Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality at two landfills in Bristol, Vermont

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Authors:Mack, Thomas J.
Author Affiliations:Primary:
U. S. Geological Survey, Bow, NH, United States
Source:Reston, VA [Water-Resources Investigations - U. S. Geological Survey, No.WRI94-4108, 111p. Publisher: U. S. Geological Survey,], United States. ISSN: 0092-332X
Publication Date:1995
Note:In English. 67 refs.Prepared in cooperation with the Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation, Agency of Natural Resources, Solid Waste Division
Summary:A study was done to describe the hydrogeology of unconsolidated deposits, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality at two landfills in Bristol, Vermont. The study area is characterized by a glacial delta greater than 200 feet thick on the west flank of the Green Mountains. An upper unconfined, coarse-grained glacial aquifer and a lower fine-grained glacial aquifer are separated throughout most of the study area by a sand, silt, and clay confining unit. A two-layer ground-water flow model was designed and calibrated to estimate ground-water-flow paths form the aquifers beneath the landfills. Large upward head gradients of 0.03 to 0.30 foot per foot are the result of ground water leaking from the underlying bedrock aquifer, which caused ground-water flow to concentrate in the upper aquifer. Most simulated ground-water-flow paths in the lower glacial aquifer beneath the landfills crossed into the upper aquifer. Simulated ground- water-flow paths in the upper aquifer, beneath the landfills, remained in the upper aquifer. Ground water characterized as landfill leachate, or influenced by landfill leachate, has a median specific conductance of 700 microseimens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius. Landfill leachate contained mean concentrations 1.5 to 10 times the background concentrations of common constituents and metals, including calcium, potassium, sodium, chloride, iron, magnesium, and manganese. Trace metals detected in the leachate included copper, nickel, zinc, cobalt, lead, and arsenic. Ten volatile organic compounds were found at four observation wells associated with one landfill and three volatile organic compounds were found at two observation wells associated with the record landfill. No one volatile organic compound was consistently found and detections were generally at or near detection limits.
Subjects:Aquifers; Data processing; Digital simulation; Discharge; Geochemistry; Glaciated terrains; Ground water; Hydrochemistry; Landfills; Movement; Recharge; Statistical analysis; Steady flow; Unconsolidated materials; USGS; Water quality; Addison County Vermont; United States; Vermont; Bristol Vermont; West-central Vermont
Coordinates:N440730 N440830 W0730500 W0730600
Record ID:1996005425
Copyright Information:GeoRef, Copyright 2018 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from USGS product, Selected Water Resources Abstracts, Reston, VA, United States
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